Guar has been cultivated in India since centuries. India accounts for 80% of the total guar produced in the world. Historically, guar has been an important source of nutrition for humans as well as animals.
Guar gum (Galactomannan) is a high molecular weight carbohydrate derived from the natural seed of guar plant (Cyampopis tetragonolobus). The seed is composed of the hull (14-17%), the endosperm (35-42%), and the germ (43-47%). Structurally, Guar gum is a polysaccharide consisting of a mannose backbone with a galactose side chain. The galactose is randomly placed on the mannose backbone with an average ratio of 1:2 galactose to mannose. Guar gum has a polymeric structure containing numerous hydroxyl groups, which are treated for manufacturing various derivatives used for special applications in various industries. The powder is almost odorless and is off white to yellowish in color.
The most important property of guar gum is its ability to hydrate rapidly in cold or hot water to attain uniform and very high viscosity at relatively low concentrations. Another advantage associated with guar gum is that it provides full viscosity even in cold water. Apart from being the most cost-effective stabilizer and emulsifier it enhances texture, enhances mouth feel, and controls crystal formation due to superior water-binding properties. It is inert in nature and is resistant to oil, greases, and solvents. It also has excellent synergy with several other hydrocolloids, particularly Xanthan Gum.